Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom (2024)

  • Letter
  • Published:
  • T. G. Tiecke1,2na1,
  • J. D. Thompson1na1,
  • N. P. de Leon1,3,
  • L. R. Liu1,
  • V. Vuletić2 &
  • M. D. Lukin1

Nature volume508,pages 241–244 (2014)Cite this article

  • 24k Accesses

  • 436 Citations

  • 171 Altmetric

  • Metrics details

Subjects

  • Nanophotonics and plasmonics
  • Quantum information

Abstract

By analogy to transistors in classical electronic circuits, quantum optical switches are important elements of quantum circuits and quantum networks1,2,3. Operated at the fundamental limit where a single quantum of light or matter controls another field or material system4, such a switch may enable applications such as long-distance quantum communication5, distributed quantum information processing2 and metrology6, and the exploration of novel quantum states of matter7. Here, by strongly coupling a photon to a single atom trapped in the near field of a nanoscale photonic crystal cavity, we realize a system in which a single atom switches the phase of a photon and a single photon modifies the atom’s phase. We experimentally demonstrate an atom-induced optical phase shift8 that is nonlinear at the two-photon level9, a photon number router that separates individual photons and photon pairs into different output modes10, and a single-photon switch in which a single ‘gate’ photon controls the propagation of a subsequent probe field11,12. These techniques pave the way to integrated quantum nanophotonic networks involving multiple atomic nodes connected by guided light.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Access through your institution

Change institution

Buy or subscribe

Subscribe to this journal

Receive 51 print issues and online access

£199.00 per year

only £3.90 per issue

Learn more

Buy this article

  • Purchase on Springer Link
  • Instant access to full article PDF

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom (1)
Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom (2)
Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom (3)
Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom (4)

Similar content being viewed by others

Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom (5)

Light–matter interactions in quantum nanophotonic devices

Article 25 January 2024

Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom (6)

On-chip generation and dynamic piezo-optomechanical rotation of single photons

Article Open access 16 November 2022

References

  1. Cirac, J. I., Zoller, P., Kimble, H. J. & Mabuchi, H. Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network. Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  2. Kimble, H. J. The quantum internet. Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  3. Duan, L.-M. & Monroe, C. Quantum networks with trapped ions. Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1209–1224 (2010)

    Article ADS Google Scholar

  4. Haroche, S. & Raimond, J.-M. Exploring the Quantum: Atoms, Cavities, and Photons (Oxford Univ. Press, 2006)

    Book Google Scholar

  5. Briegel, H.-J., Dür, W., Cirac, J. I. & Zoller, P. Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  6. Kómár, P. et al. A quantum network of clocks. Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.6045 (2013)

  7. Carusotto, I. & Ciuti, C. Quantum fluids of light. Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 299–366 (2013)

    Article ADS Google Scholar

  8. Duan, L.-M. & Kimble, H. J. Scalable photonic quantum computation through cavity-assisted interactions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127902 (2004)

    Article ADS Google Scholar

  9. Schuster, I. et al. Nonlinear spectroscopy of photons bound to one atom. Nature Phys. 4, 382–385 (2008)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  10. Aoki, T. et al. Efficient routing of single photons by one atom and a microtoroidal cavity. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083601 (2009)

    Article ADS Google Scholar

  11. Chen, W. et al. All-optical switch and transistor gated by one stored photon. Science 341, 768–770 (2013)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  12. Reiserer, A., Ritter, S. & Rempe, G. Nondestructive detection of an optical photon. Science 342, 1349–1351 (2013)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  13. O’Shea, D., Junge, C., Volz, J. & Rauschenbeutel, A. Fiber-optical switch controlled by a single atom. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 193601 (2013)

    Article ADS Google Scholar

  14. Volz, T. et al. Ultrafast all-optical switching by single photons. Nature Photon. 6, 605–609 (2012)

    Article ADS Google Scholar

  15. Kim, H., Bose, R., Shen, T. C., Solomon, G. S. & Waks, E. A quantum logic gate between a solid-state quantum bit and a photon. Nature Photon. 7, 373–377 (2013)

    Article ADS Google Scholar

  16. Chang, D. E., Sorensen, A. S., Demler, E. A. & Lukin, M. D. A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons. Nature Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  17. Schuster, D. I. et al. Resolving photon number states in a superconducting circuit. Nature 445, 515–518 (2007)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  18. Gleyzes, S. et al. Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity. Nature 446, 297–300 (2007)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  19. Deléglise, S. et al. Reconstruction of non-classical cavity field states with snapshots of their decoherence. Nature 455, 510–514 (2008)

    Article ADS Google Scholar

  20. Turchette, Q. A., Hood, C. J., Lange, W., Mabuchi, H. & Kimble, H. J. Measurement of conditional phase shifts for quantum logic. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710–4713 (1995)

    Article CAS ADS MathSciNet Google Scholar

  21. Fushman, I. et al. Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot. Science 320, 769–772 (2008)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  22. Aoki, T. et al. Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator. Nature 443, 671–674 (2006)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  23. Ritter, S. et al. An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities. Nature 484, 195–200 (2012)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  24. Devoret, M. H. & Schoelkopf, R. J. Superconducting circuits for quantum information: an outlook. Science 339, 1169–1174 (2013)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  25. Thompson, J. D. et al. Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity. Science 340, 1202–1205 (2013)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

  26. Waks, E. & Vuckovic, J. Dispersive properties and large Kerr nonlinearities using dipole-induced transparency in a single-sided cavity. Phys. Rev. A 73, 041803 (2006)

    Article ADS Google Scholar

  27. Witthaut, D., Lukin, M. D. & Sörensen, A. S. Photon sorters and QND detectors using single photon emitters. Europhys. Lett. 97, 50007 (2012)

    Article ADS Google Scholar

  28. Volz, J., Gehr, R., Dubois, G., Esteve, J. & Reichel, J. Measurement of the internal state of a single atom without energy exchange. Nature 475, 210–213 (2011)

    Article CAS Google Scholar

  29. Wang, B. & Duan, L.-M. Engineering superpositions of coherent states in coherent optical pulses through cavity-assisted interaction. Phys. Rev. A 72, 022320 (2005)

    Article ADS Google Scholar

  30. Thompson, J. D., Tiecke, T. G., Zibrov, A. S., Vuletić, V. & Lukin, M. D. Coherence and Raman sideband cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 133001 (2013)

    Article CAS ADS Google Scholar

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank T. Peyronel, A. Kubanek, A. Zibrov for discussions and experimental assistance. Financial support was provided by the US NSF, the Center for Ultracold Atoms, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative and the Packard Foundation. J.D.T. acknowledges support from the Fannie and John Hertz Foundation and the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program. This work was performed in part at the Center for Nanoscale Systems (CNS), a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, which is supported by the NSF under award no. ECS-0335765. The CNS is part of Harvard University.

Author information

Author notes

  1. T. G. Tiecke and J. D. Thompson: These authors contributed equally to this work.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, 02138, Massachusetts, USA

    T. G. Tiecke,J. D. Thompson,N. P. de Leon,L. R. Liu&M. D. Lukin

  2. Department of Physics and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, Massachusetts, USA

    T. G. Tiecke&V. Vuletić

  3. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, 02138, Massachusetts, USA

    N. P. de Leon

Authors

  1. T. G. Tiecke

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  2. J. D. Thompson

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  3. N. P. de Leon

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  4. L. R. Liu

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  5. V. Vuletić

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  6. M. D. Lukin

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

Contributions

The experiments and analysis were carried out by T.G.T., J.D.T., N.P.d.L. and L.R.L. All work was supervised by V.V. and M.D.L. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to V. Vuletić or M. D. Lukin.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

This file contains Supplementary Text, Supplementary Figures 1-6 and Supplementary References. (PDF 589 kb)

Rights and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Tiecke, T., Thompson, J., de Leon, N. et al. Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom. Nature 508, 241–244 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13188

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13188

This article is cited by

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Access through your institution

Change institution

Buy or subscribe

Editorial Summary

Through the gate to quantum networks

The development of a quantum gate between a flying optical photonic qubit (polarization) and a single trapped atomic qubit (spin) has been a long-standing goal in quantum information science. Such gates are required both for quantum computation to be scaled to a large number of qubits and for quantum communication to be scaled to long distances. Now two groups, working independently, report the successful implementation of such gates. Gerhard Rempe and colleagues demonstrate a quantum gate between a laser-trapped atomic qubit and a single photon, where the polarization of the photon is flipped depending exactly on the spin state of the atom. Mikhail Lukin and co-workers describe a similar achievement — a quantum gate effect between a single atom trapped near a photonic crystal and a single photon.

Associated content

A strong hybrid couple

  • Luming Duan

Nature News & Views

A quantum gate between a flying optical photon and a single trapped atom

  • Andreas Reiserer
  • Norbert Kalb
  • Stephan Ritter

Nature Letter

Advertisem*nt

Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom (2024)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Tish Haag

Last Updated:

Views: 6004

Rating: 4.7 / 5 (67 voted)

Reviews: 90% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Tish Haag

Birthday: 1999-11-18

Address: 30256 Tara Expressway, Kutchburgh, VT 92892-0078

Phone: +4215847628708

Job: Internal Consulting Engineer

Hobby: Roller skating, Roller skating, Kayaking, Flying, Graffiti, Ghost hunting, scrapbook

Introduction: My name is Tish Haag, I am a excited, delightful, curious, beautiful, agreeable, enchanting, fancy person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.